A nutritional and commercial evaluation of using novel food ingredients as sugar replacers in cake recipes.

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Crudden, Caroline
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The current global obesity crisis has resulted in Government agencies at a global,
European and national level introducing initiatives to reduce overweight and obesity
rates and Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Sweet bakery products such as cake
are considered high contributors to added sugar in the diet. Excess sugar consumption
can lead to weight gain, overweight, obesity and resultant NCDs. Government
agencies are challenging the cake manufacturers to reformulate to reduce the sugar
content of cakes, as part of these initiatives.
Barriers to cooperation of cake manufactures with reformulation include the failure of
government agencies to consider the financial implications of increased ingredient
costs and potential commercial failure if the consumer demand for reformulated cakes
is not prevalent. Sugar reduction in cakes is highly challenging, as no one ingredient
can replace the full functionality of sugar in cake applications. Previous studies on
sugar reduction in cake have concluded that the replacement of sugar with sweeteners
or sugar alcohols has posed challenges. Cake manufacturers are looking to food
technologists to develop innovative new ingredients to help solve these challenges
without compromising the consumer experience, or business profit. Novel food
ingredients are foods that have not been traditionally consumed by the general
population, potentially involving new production processes, innovative foods, new
technologies or foods traditionally consumed in other global regions. Novel food
ingredients can also include valorised by-products from other food production
This thesis investigated whether novel food ingredients would make suitable sugar
replacers in cake applications, if they were commercially viable and would achieve
consumer acceptability in terms of best fit texture, volume and sensory criteria. The
results indicate that novel food ingredients cannot replicate the functionality of sugar
in cake recipes to achieve consumer acceptability in terms of this criteria. Some novel
food ingredients demonstrated consumer acceptability on most metrics and therefore
future research is recommended to ascertain if the addition of emulsifiers, enzymes,
flavour modulators etc. could achieve consumer acceptability. Assessment of the commercial viability of novel food ingredients in terms of global availability and market price, concluded that they were not commercially viable for cake manufacturers. Further studies could consider economic incentives such as
valorisation grants, to reduce the financial burden on cake manufacturers of