This repository is a collection of research and scholarly output from Innopharma.
ItemEvaluation of public policy interventions in the food retail environment on diet and health(2023-08)Across the world countries have introduced a variety of public health policies to improve diet and nutrition among their populations. This study aims to understand best practices in public policy interventions and the impact they have had on diet and health within the food retail environment. The following study identifies public health and nutrition policies across European countries which have proven to be most impactful. It identifies any advancements that have been suggested in literature for future policy makers to consider. This study focuses on policy which impacts the food retail environment explored through the marketing 4 P’s. Food retail provides insight into consumers nutritional purchasing behaviours and is an extremely influential environment. This study will focus on nutritional policies which impact purchasing decisions in food retail stores. The nutritional policies discussed were classified using the marketing “4P’s” approach Price (taxes and subsidies), Product (reformulation and food labelling), Place (food retail) and Promotion (food retail advertising). Price: The results are mostly positive while introduced differently, some countries tax sugar other countries tax salt. Usually, these taxes impact industry more and manufacturers absorb most of the cost or reformulate their products. Most subsidies target children through schools not instore. The WHO have suggested new subsidies concepts which could increase consumption of fruit and vegetables. Research has suggested a red meat tax could positively impact diet and health. Product: Product reformulation is widely suggested as a successful measure which will help reduce obesity. Research has shown a modest impact as voluntary reformulation is most common and often hinders real results. Food labelling, information and nutritional guidelines are extremely common but with meek results. Countries across North and South America have seen best results with warning labels on food and drink products. Place: Retailers control the space in which food is sold and often use tactics to entice the sale of one product over another. Studies have shown that when space is prioritised for healthier food products instore consumption increases. Utilising various ‘nudging’ tactics may encourage the sale of healthier foods. Promotion: Several steps have been taken to protect children across traditional media but regulations for social media are lacking. Research highlights the urgent need for an improvement on mandatory policies. Some in store measures have been taken by some retailers to protect children against enticing product packaging. Research suggests nutrient profiling as possible solution to regulate advertising. All the “4 P’s” have a varying degree of influence on the food retail environment and consumer purchasing decisions. Overall public policy was found to be most effective when mandatory guidelines and targets were set. Fiscal policies were more effective than informative strategies but met with the most opposition from industry. Education is a key interlinking factor to policy success. Most European countries are engaged in implementing policies to improve diet and health. However, some countries including Ireland have fallen short in implementing effective policies across all the 4 P’s. Currently, much work needs to be done to implement powerful public policy to improve diet and health to reduce obesity. This study has found that change happens when several mandatory policies are introduced which dictate food retailers’ behaviour. The food retail environment plays a key role in consumers purchasing decisions and provides a key backdrop to educate consumers and bring about real change. ItemA case study evaluating healthcare professionals’ generic prescribing practices in a single medical institution in Nigeria(2023-08)Healthcare systems worldwide are influenced by the practices and decisions of healthcare professionals, especially in relation to their prescription practices. This case study explores the prescribing practices of healthcare professionals withing a single medical institution in Nigeria. The study aims to assess the level to which generic prescribing practices are embraced, considering the effects on healthcare affordability, accessibility, and overall patient care. The increased healthcare expenditures, and patients access to essential treatments, has caused the adoption of generic medications as a strategy to reduce these challenges. Generic medicines are pharmacologically equivalent alternatives to branded medicines. This investigation takes place within the distinctive context of the healthcare scenario in Nigeria, including its economic diverseness, and evolving regulatory landscape. The scope of this study was confined to a singular medical institution, with diverse health professionals by diving into the prescribing practices, and further into the factors that may influence generic prescribing decisions. The research methodology that was appropriate for this research Is the quantitative research approach, and this research incorporated a survey method that utilized an online survey questionnaire to obtain information from participants. The estimated sample size for this survey was 100, with the main target of healthcare professionals being general/medical physician and pharmacists. The response rate obtained for the duration of data collection is 64%, with 53 being general/medical physicians, and 11 pharmacists across various departments in the University College Hospital Ibadan Nigeria. The findings from this study did not only contribute to the existing body of knowledge on prescription practices and patterns, but also offer insights to healthcare policy makers, administrators and practitioners to improve the current quality care given to patients, while also addressing the factors that influences their generic prescribing choices. The result of this study showed that majority of participants had knowledge on the therapeutic equivalence of generic medicines and branded medicines, and majority were also familiar with the factors that may be influencing their generic prescribing decisions. ItemThe applications of AI (Machine learning & RPA) Phase III Clinical trials in India(2023-08)Rapid developments in machine learning (ML) and robotic process automation (RPA), both aspects of Artificial intelligence (AI), have resulted in a major change in several sectors, including the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries. After receiving regulatory permission and being made available on the market, phase III clinical studies are essential for assessing the safety, effectiveness, and side effects of new drugs and medical treatments. To improve their efficiency and effectiveness, however, these experiments frequently need a lot of time and money and are at risk of human error. This research makes valuable contributions by filling the highlighted research gap through a thorough examination of the viability, challenges, and benefits associated with the implementation of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and robotic process automation (RPA) technologies in Phase III Clinical Trials. By conducting a comprehensive analysis of academic work, relevant approaches, and practical instances, this study highlights the inherent capabilities of these technologies in enhancing functional efficacy, data accuracy, and well-informed decision-making processes within the field of clinical trials. The integration of different aspects of the research is facilitated by the identification of a research gap and a thorough examination of the existing literature. The research aims aim to evaluate the suitability of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and robotic process automation (RPA) in Phase III Clinical Trials within the India. The research enquiries aim to explore and identify the difficulties that exist and viable solutions to address them. The research technique combines qualitative interviews with key stakeholders and quantitative analysis of historical trial data. The findings highlight the positive effects of combining AI, ML, and RPA, focusing improved patient enrolment, improved monitoring practices, and more trustworthy data analysis. The analysis of these data situates the outcomes within the distinct framework of clinical trials conducted in India, taking into consideration the regulatory, cultural, and technological complications that are relevant to the area. The main goal of this research is to provide detailed information on the implementation of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and robotic process automation (RPA) in Phase III Clinical Trials conducted in India. It offers practical suggestions for key stakeholders such as pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies, and researchers, empowering them to effectively adopt and leverage new technological breakthroughs. In conclusion, this study offers important new information about the possible influence of AI (ML & RPA) in Phase III clinical trials in India. Stakeholders in the pharmaceutical sector, researchers, and regulatory agencies can make well-informed judgments on the use of these technologies by considering the advantages and limitations of AI adoption. To ensure the successful incorporation of AI in the effort of increased clinical research quality in India, the study also highlights the significance of addressing ethical concerns and embracing technical breakthroughs ItemThe analysis and impact of adopting sustainable blister packaging on solid dosage form in pharmacies in Ireland(2023-08)The pharmaceutical industry's commitment to sustainable practices has prompted a paradigm shift in packaging solutions, with a specific focus on sustainable blister packaging. This dissertation scrutinizes the multifaceted landscape of sustainable blister packaging practices within the context of pharmacies in Ireland, aligning its findings with the predefined objectives. The central objectives of this study encompass the exploration of pharmacists' familiarity with sustainable blister packaging, the identification of challenges hindering its adoption, the assessment of perceived benefits, and the formulation of recommendations to enhance sustainable packaging practices. By leveraging a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, this study offers a comprehensive analysis of the subject matter. The research commences by profiling the demographics of surveyed pharmacists, unveiling their experience levels and familiarity with sustainable blister packaging. These insights inform the understanding of the pharmacist's perspective within the broader context of sustainable packaging practices. Furthermore, the study explores into the challenges encountered during the adoption of sustainable blister packaging, highlighting storage constraints, regulatory guidelines, cost considerations, and availability of suitable options. The analysis of these challenges contributes to the formulation of targeted strategies to overcome barriers to sustainable practices. A fundamental aspect of this dissertation lies in the assessment of perceived benefits associated with the adoption of sustainable blister packaging. The research underscores a notable consensus on the environmental advantages, reduction of plastic waste, and improved sustainability brought forth by sustainable packaging. These findings underscore the alignment between participants' perspectives and the overarching goals of sustainable packaging initiatives. Aligning with the defined objectives, the study culminates by offering recommendations and best practices to foster the adoption of sustainable blister packaging within pharmacies. These recommendations encompass the need for widespread awareness campaigns, education initiatives, and training programs to facilitate informed decision-making and responsible choices. By addressing each objective, this study provides a comprehensive framework for enhancing sustainable packaging practices in the pharmacy sector. In conclusion, this dissertation sheds light on the intricate dynamics of sustainable blister packaging practices within Irish pharmacies. Through an insightful analysis of findings, the study contributes valuable insights on sustainable packaging, offering practical implications for the industry's shift towards more environmentally responsible practices. ItemExploring the impact of digital transformation in the pharmaceutical supply chain in relation to storage, marketing and distribution in Nigeria.(2023-08)The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a significant transformation through the introduction of digital technologies into its supply chain. This research delves into the impact of this digital shift especially within the pharmaceutical supply chain in Nigeria. The study uses a mixed-methods approach, combining a comprehensive review of existing literature with data gathered through surveys and interviews. The primary objective of this research is to explore the various impacts of digitalization on the vital elements of the supply chain: storage, marketing, and distribution. A comprehensive conceptual framework that blends two unique philosophical viewpoints: positivist and interpretive, guides the research. By combining these two philosophical viewpoints, the research seeks to illustrate the complex web of effects created by digital transformation inside Nigeria's pharmaceutical supply chain. Every stage of the research carefully incorporates ethical considerations. In compliance with the ethical criteria of modern research methodology, the privacy of data provided, participant confidentiality, and informed consent are upheld to the highest standard. The data analysis employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches through surveys and interviews. By fusing both analyses in exploring the impact of digital transformation technologies across the three sectors, findings reveal that there is an under-deployment of digitization technologies in the storage and distribution unit, however, the marketing department has observed dramatic improvement in adopting digital transformation technologies. A total of 92 respondents and 3 highly distinguished experts across the 3 different sectors were actively involved in drawing this theoretical judgement and practical recommendations. The findings of this study have great potential for both academic researchers and business professionals. The research is positioned to reveal a range of opportunities and difficulties by thoroughly examining the effects of digital transformation on storage, marketing, and distribution. The conclusions drawn from this study are anticipated to act as a strategic compass for those involved in navigating the constantly changing pharmaceutical supply chain in Nigeria.
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